The Benz patent engine car number 1 was the name of the first from Carl Benz built automobile with combustion engine. The patent for this vehicle was submitted by Benz on 29 January 1886, on 3 July 1886 accomplished Benz the first public test run in Mannheim.


The engine

Principal item of the car was an a cylinder four-stroke engine with a capacity of 0,954 litres. This already exhibited some very substantial details, which rank also today still among the Grundpfeilern of each combustion engine: Crankshaft with counterweights, electrical ignition and water cooling. It carried 2/3 HP out after the measurements of Benz when 250 revolutions. (Later measurements of the technical university Stuttgart result in even 0.9 HP in the case of 400 revolutions).

The 250 revolutions of the Erstlings were sufficient for Benz were perfectly, finally this already approximately twice as many as with its secondary act gas engines. Further focuses of the "“engine light for conditions at that time with approximately 100 kilograms "„were cylinders with open crank case, over eccentric cam seaweeds steered inlet sliding slidegate valve and the discharge opening poppet valve, operated over cam disk, rocker arm and push rod as well as the lubrication over dripping oilers. The large flywheel conceived Benz for the installation lying into the chassis, because it feared that during perpendicular arrangement due to the gyroscope effect the steering and the stability of the vehicle in close curves are impaired.

The developed by Benz, which at the same time contained also a gasoline supply of 1,5 litres, served the mixture preparation. For the precise composition of the gasoline air mixture provided a case slidegate valve, which more or less takes the holes off for the auxiliary sucking in line and regulated so the power output. In the vehicle this slidegate valve was well attainable underneath the driver's seat.

Benz dedicated some attempts to the ignition, until he found a solution, which was adapted to the then small achievement of battery power. It transformed the river with a spark coil on higher tension. Also the spark plug was an self-development. Later investigations showed that the material of their electrodes with that commercial spark plugs of the thirties 20. Century agreed large.

The cooling of the combustion engine represented a special problem, because it could not be attached like a stationary engine simply to a cooling water pipe. Benz purged on a simple evaporative cooling, which proved with the small achievement as quite effective and sufficiently.

The engine through stout-heartet tricks of the flywheel was started. The fact that the gasoline supply in the carburetor was not enough for a longer distance continues to disturb patent engine cars with the Benz not. The drive of the vehicle nevertheless needed approximately 10 litres on 100 kilometers at that time still as dangerously valid gasoline.

Chassis and structure

The framework was curved and welded from steel tubes. Since the car should have rear-wheel drive, emerged the problem of the steering element was thus from the rear pushed, which had to be designed differently than with a pulled car. The turntable steering element common with Kutschen was not applicable, and so Benz decided for a vehicle. The front wheel hung in a ungefederten fork and by a rack connected with a crank was steered. (Only 1893 invented Benz its Ackermann steering). The three with full rubber bereiften manufactured Benz themselves, only the rims were "„external supply "“. The front wheel ran, as at that time in the building of bicycles usual, in a ball bearing, the rear wheels in white metal cans.

The car was propelled with one chain each on the left and on the right the jackshaft over the rear wheels, which were connected with the framework for their part by a Starrachse and a Vollelliptikfedern. There was one course in form of a festmontierten drive disk with this first automobile on the jackshaft only including integrated differential, beside it still another no-load operation disk. Thus no transmission with two or more courses, just as little a reverse gear. The flat strap between engine and jackshaft worked, owing to the no-load operation disk, at the same time as clutch. The flat strap was shifted for starting simply by the loose on the fixed disk. The driving speed was regulated by the case slidegate valve underneath the driver's seat. Over the engine eder storage vessel for the cooling water thront. One braked with a hand lever, which affected the reduction gear wheel. A foot brake did not give it yet.

The seat was installed and with stitched leather referred before the engine onto swung feathers/springs directly on the frameworks. A low, leather-referred railing in the back and at the sides gave firm stop.

Concern children were the chains: The chains were unsatisfactorily, usually too soft, and stretched therefore much, jumped out of the gear wheels or tore. Since there were however no better, Benz had to be content me with the existing material.


The first test runs took place 1885 for reasons of the secrecy in the factory yard, and ended at the factory wall. Also the first "„trip "“on free distance - at night - took only few minutes. After one hundred meters the car stops. In numerous attempts however the range could be gradually improved.

On 29 January the vehicle was finally announced at the realm patent office under the number 37435 to the patent. With the first public and by newspaper articles on 3 July 1886 on the struggle race in Mannheim run its son Eugen with a bottle gasoline documented exit beside to after-fill upover if the gasoline goes to end "“.

The first cross-country travel with an improved model of the engine car became famous. Without the knowledge of its married man Bertha Benz mounted the car on 5 August 1888 together with their sons and drove 106 km long distance from Mannheim to Pforzheim. This first performance inspection did not only lead to further improvements on the construction of the car, but also for the hoped for economic success of the model.

== technical data of the Benz patent engine car number 1 ==

Basic data: Water-cooled a cylinder four-stroke engine with large flywheel, lying built in the tail
Drilling x stroke: 90 x 150 mm
Capacity: 954 cm
Achievement: 0.90 HP with 400/min
  • Lying a cylinder with horizontal flywheel
  • Gas change over inlet sliding slidegate valves, steered over eccentric cam seaweeds
  • Standing exhaust valve, steered over cam disk, rocker arm and push rod
  • Mixture preparation over Benz
  • Evaporative cooling, (Thermosyphon)
  • Lubrication over dripping oilers with fat socket
  • Electrical high voltage buzzer ignition
  • Start through tricks of the flywheel
  • Steel tube framework
  • Front wheel suspension at tax fork without suspension
  • Rear wheel suspension at Starrachse with Vollelliptikfeder
  • Steering rack, guidance crank in center of the car
  • No foot brake, emergency brake affects reduction gear wheel
  • Three diameter in front 730 mm, in the back 1125 mm, in each case solid tires
Power transmission:
  • A flat strap differential integrated from the engine to the jackshaft also loose and fixed disk and
  • Ever a chain from the jackshaft to the two rear wheels
Transmission/circuit: Shift the belt between loose and fixed disk
Maximum speed: 16 km/h
Consumption: approx. 10 l/100 km
Wheel base: 1450 mm
Track width: 1190 mm
Length: 2700 mm
Width: 1400 mm
Height: 1450 mm
Unloaded weight: 265 kg